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Online paper writing service presents essay about how stimulus that I have become habituated to is the smell of cigarettes. Before becoming a smoker, the odour alones’ Unconditioned Stimulus (US) was enough to wake me up in the middle of the night – my Unconditioned Response (UR). My habituation to this stimulus has been long lasting as I myself became susceptible to practicing this unfortunate harmful habit. Initially, my UR to the stimulus of cigarette odour was sensitive, thereafter I became adaptive to it because, not only had I been surrounded by cigarette smokers for a lengthy amount of time – almost a decade – but the reality is that it was not only my exposure to it that was habitual but also, that I did too partake in the habit, which made my UR ultimately and habitually, succumb to the smell. So much so that I no longer lose sleep when encountering its scent.
Online paper writing service presents the stimulus that I have become sensitized to is the sound of my new born daughter crying. This could take place at anytime of the day or night and my immediate UR is to stop whatever it is that I may be occupied with, even if it is sleep, in order to attend to her. The US of the sound of her whaling, that I as her mother UR to, in order to make certain that all is well on her behalf, is what causes me to be adaptive to this stimulus. Online paper writing service presents the short result of becoming a new mother. My baby is the automatic alarm in all things. Her wellbeing is sensitized to me in every way. This stimulus is short lasting, only because the baby’s growth determines the length of US. It was adaptive because once becoming a mother, I automatically sensitize myself, almost subconsciously, to all of my child’s needs and because her form of communication is crying, my automated reflexes cause me to understand that there is something that my child requires of me at that moment in time.
Part A: Question 2.
Online paper writing service presents drug addiction is a combination of an US and an UR reaction working against an individual in order to feed their addiction. According to Siegel (1984), “A Pavlovian conditioning model of tolerance emphasizes the contribution of an association between predrug cues and the systemic effects of the drug to tolerance” (p. 428). In classical conditioning, the US is the drug and the UR is the drug addicted person’s continuous use of it. When a drug addicted person suffers withdrawals, the CS is the drug again because it makes them feel better and almost works as medicine to treat the pain. These symptoms very nearly align with the taste aversion theory where scientists injected poison into a food that the rat would ingest and later become ill from (Mazur, 2012). The experiment resulted in the rats not wanting to eat that specific food again and with drugs, when a drug addict begins feeling ill – their UR to their insufficiency of medicine – in most cases, their immediate response is to rid their body of that pain by using more drugs, the CR. Part B Question 6.
Come up with examples in classical conditioning where the CS is: a sound, a visual stimulus, and a smell. Be sure to explain your scenario completely and label the CS, CR, US, UR in each of your three examples.
Online paper writing service presents an example of classical conditioning that includes a sound, a visual and a smell is feeding time for a 6-month old baby. The US is the actual food and the CS is the sound of the kettle boiling the water in preparation for the food. The baby’s UR to the sound of the kettle and sight of the bottle as their unconditioned salivating at the meal to come. The smell of the milk is an additional US as this automatically makes the baby hungry and wanting to eat. If a mother rang a bell (CS) at every meal time, the children would become hungry at the mere sound of the bell (UR) and once the meal has been placed before them, the smell (US) and sight of the meal arouses their eagerness to consume the meal placed before them.