An academic essay is essentially
a claim followed by supporting evidence, possible refutations,
and a conclusion. Clarity, order,
and logic are the components of any effective piece of writing which
can be achieved by prior planning.
The plan can start with an idea that transforms into an argument, consequently marking that you have carefully thought the question through and decided what will strengthen the logic of your narration. To start, you should create an outline.
An outline of a successful academic essay contains introduction (clearly defined argument), main body (properly ordered ideas), conclusion (logical outcome).
The introduction usually starts off from a broader perspective, gradually narrowing down to your specific idea. The main aim of the section is to indicate the central topic and map out your arguments. This may seem like
a sketch of your further paper, but at this stage, you need to be already sure of what the arguments will be.
The main body, in turn, comprises paragraphs that link to your thesis—supporting or refuting it. Each of them must connect to the ones before and after it to make the text cohesive.
You start with a topic statement that introduces the information, then switch to the support component, which essentially contains points that reinforce the argument (about 3 of them),
and end with a concluding sentence to wrap up the idea.
Example topic sentence: On the state level, governments should work to push the laws to equalize the rights and opportunities of all people, regardless of their skin color.
Example concluding sentence: In such a way, the state will take responsibility for the issue and take measures to eradicate prejudice against people of color in the workplace.